The Connection Between Blood Type and Autoimmune Disease

Image courtesy of Medical News Today.

Medical researchers have long asked the question: Is there a connection between one’s blood type and autoimmune disease?

Clinical studies have had varied results, mostly due to the small sample sizes of each study. Though this area needs more research, this blog post will cover some of the research that has been published so far.

Study: Rheumatic Diseases and ABO Blood Types

A 2017 study in Turkey sought to find a link between particular blood types and the incidence of rheumatic disease. Rheumatic disease includes over 200 conditions that cause pain in your joints, connective tissue, tendons, and cartilage; many of these conditions are autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s Syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

The researchers assessed 823 patients, with the following distribution of blood types: 42.5% patients had type A blood, 33.2% had type O blood, 15.4% had type B, and 8.9% had type AB. Each patient in the study had at least one of the following nine rheumatic diseases:

  • Behçet’s disease
  • Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  • Spondyloarthropathy
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • Systemic sclerosis (SSc)
  • Sjogren’s syndrome (SjS)
  • Undifferentiated connective tissue disease
  • Vasculitis

Their study found that there was a significant difference in the distribution of blood types among those with rheumatic diseases. The most common autoimmune diseases among those with type A blood were: rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathy, vasculitis, Behçet’s disease, and undifferentiated connective tissue disease.

The most common autoimmune diseases among those with type O blood were: systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and Sjogren’s syndrome. The researchers also noted that SLE, SSc and SjS are the connective tissue disorders frequently observed with antinuclear antibodies (ANA). The rheumatic disease familial Mediterranean fever was also found to be most common in those with type O blood.

Those with blood type AB were observed to be the least likely to suffer from rheumatic disease. However, it should be noted that type AB blood is also the most rare blood type in general, and represented the smallest amount of patients studied.

In addition, it was found that there was a significant difference in the distribution of Rh factor in rheumatic diseases. Of those with rheumatic diseases, 92.2% patients were Rh positive and only 7.8% patients were Rh negative. However, it should once again be noted that a positive Rhesus Factor (Rh+) is also more common among the general population than a negative Rhesus Factor (Rh-).

Is there a link between autoimmune disease and blood type?

So, if you have blood types A or O, does this mean you are more likely to get an autoimmune disease? The researchers who conducted this study concluded: “…we believe that the higher incidence of different rheumatic diseases in different blood types is associated with different genetic predispositions.”

In other words, since blood type is inherited (i.e. genetic), the results of the study point to a likely connection between certain genes and the increased predisposition for developing an autoimmune or rheumatic disease.

Do you know your blood type?

I, for one, do not know my own blood type. This is somewhat ironic, since I’ve undergone many blood tests as part of my Sjogren’s syndrome diagnosis, as well as for monitoring my liver enzyme levels while taking certain medications to control my autoimmune symptoms.

I actually did ask my primary care doctor what my blood type was the last time he ordered a test, and he advised that finding out your blood type is not a common part of the blood testing routine, and thus, he didn’t know what mine was.

If you have an autoimmune disease (or multiple diseases), and you know your blood type, comment below and let us know, are your condition and blood type consistent with the results of this study?

10 Facts About Scleroderma

Kristine Cruz-Munda is a scleroderma patient who shares her story living with this autoimmune skin condition. Video courtesy of CBS LA.

According to the Scleroderma Foundation, scleroderma is a chronic connective tissue disease, and is generally classified as a rheumatic autoimmune disease. In patients with scleroderma, the body over-produces collagen, reacting as if there were an injury needing repair. This over-production of collagen prevents various organs in the body from functioning normally.

While this condition is poorly understood, there is some information about the disease that we do know. Read on to learn 10 facts about scleroderma.

1. Scleroderma is more common than you think

It’s estimated that 300,000 Americans live with scleroderma. Of these 300,000 patients, approximately 1/3 live with the systemic form of the disease. However, it’s possible that the number of scleroderma patients is actually much higher, since diagnosing this skin condition can be difficult, as the disorder bears a lot of similarities to other autoimmune diseases, such as polymyositis.

2. Localized scleroderma is the first main type

The two main types of scleroderma are localized and systemic. With localized scleroderma, symptoms such as skin thickening and collagen overproduction are limited to a few places on the skin or muscles, and internal organs are usually not affected. In general, localized scleroderma is relatively mild and rarely develops into systemic scleroderma.

Morphea and linear scleroderma are two sub-classifications of this form of the disease, which appear as patches or streaks on the skin, respectively.

3. Systemic scleroderma is the second main type

In contrast to localized scleroderma, systemic scleroderma affects the connective tissue in many parts of the body, including the skin, esophagus, gastrointestinal tract (stomach and bowels), lungs, kidneys, heart, and other internal organs. It can even impact blood vessels, muscles, and joints. These tissues become hard and fibrous, which decreases their function.

There are two sub-classifications of systemic scleroderma – diffuse and limited. Diffuse scleroderma results in a rapid skin thickening across a larger portion of the skin. Patients with this form of the disease have more internal organ involvement as well. Conversely, limited scleroderma occurs when the skin thickening is less widespread, and is usually confined to the fingers, hands and face. It tends to develop slowly over time.

4. Limited scleroderma is also called CREST syndrome

Limited scleroderma is sometimes referred to as CREST syndrome, an acronym which stands for the different symptoms this condition causes:

  • Calcinosis – an accumulation of calcium deposits under the skin, which may cause pain
  • Raynaud’s – a phenomenon in which small arteries that supply blood to the skin constrict excessively in response to cold, limiting blood supply to one’s fingers and toes and changing their color
  • Esophageal dysfunction – a stiffening of the gastrointestinal tract muscles, resulting in reflux and indigestion
  • Sclerodactyly – the hardening of the skin on one’s fingers and/or toes
  • Telangiectasias – round, red spots on the skin’s surface as a result of widened small blood vessels

5. Scleroderma can affect one’s lungs

Pulmonary symptoms can occur in patients with systemic scleroderma. For example, patients may develop pulmonary hypertension, a condition in which the lung’s blood vessels narrow, which results in impaired blood flow in the lungs. This, in turn, causes shortness of breath.

6. Your gender, age, ethnicity and genetics may play a role

Scleroderma affects women up to three to four times more frequently than their male counterparts. According to the Mayo Clinic, the condition most commonly occurs between the ages of 30 and 50, although children can also develop the disease. One’s ethnic background may also influence the risk of developing the disease, the age of onset, and the severity of one’s symptoms. Although it’s believed that genetics play a role in the development of scleroderma, genetic factors are thought to only predispose a person to the disease, rather than cause it.

7. Other autoimmune issues may co-occur

Since scleroderma is an autoimmune disease, it may occur in conjunction with other autoimmune issues. According to the Mayo Clinic, between 15-20% of scleroderma patients have another autoimmune disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or Sjogren’s syndrome. This is why it’s important for patients to get evaluated for other potential co-morbidities as well.

8. There is no cure, but treatments do exist

While there is no known cure for scleroderma, treatment options do exist to help patients manage their symptoms and to prevent further complications of the disease. For example, your doctor may prescribe steroids to help you cope with skin symptoms. Blood pressure medications may also be used to treat Raynaud’s phenomenon. Anti-acids and antibiotics can help reduce digestive issues and prevent infections. Immunosuppressants may be prescribed to reduce overactivity of your immune system and to decrease damaging inflammation. And finally, pain medications may also be used to decrease pain if over-the-counter pain medications aren’t effective enough.

9. Surgery may be necessary

In extreme cases, surgery may be required for certain scleroderma patients. For example, patients with severe Raynaud’s phenomenon in their fingers or toes may have tissues that die off or develop painful sores; consequently, amputation of these tissues may be required. Also, in patients with heavy lung involvement, a lung transplant may be necessary to help the patient breathe.

10. Scleroderma support groups are here to help

The Scleroderma Foundation offers numerous local chapters and support groups, designed to help patients connect with others living with the disease. These support groups provide a forum to share feelings, concerns, information with others, and act as a place to offer peer support and encouragement. To find your local support group in the US, visit the scleroderma chapter locator.

Do you or someone you love suffer from scleroderma? What has been your experience living with the disease? Let us know in the comments below!

Queen Latifah Raises Awareness about Scleroderma

Queen Latifah with her mother, Rita Owens, who passed away in 2018 after a five-year battle with Scleroderma. Photo credit: Johnny Nunez.

Queen Latifah, an actress, producer and singer, has become an advocate for those living with scleroderma after losing her mother, Rita Owens, to the disease in 2018.

Scleroderma, or systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune disease that translates from Greek to ‘hard skin’, since hardening of the skin is one of the most visible manifestations of the disease, according to the Scleroderma Foundation. Symptoms of scleroderma can vary widely from person to person, and its effects can range from mild to life threatening. One of the most life threatening effects of scleroderma is that it can cause tissues on major organs to harden. In approximately 25% of patients, scleroderma results in interstitial lung disease, which causes scarring of the lungs and makes it difficult to breathe, which may also be fatal for the patient.

Unfortunately, this is what happened to Rita Owens. A lifelong educator, she passed out when teaching in her classroom. Though she had experienced shortness of breath and dry cough for a while, her family had thought it was just a result of her getting older. It wasn’t until she fainted in front of her students that various tests were done and specialists consulted, when she was finally diagnosed with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD).

Before her passing, Rita Owens was one of approximately 300,000 Americans who suffer from Scleroderma.

In an interview with Good Housekeeping, Latifah said that the diagnosis came as a total shock to her family, saying, “That was terrifying because now we had to figure out, ‘what does it mean to have this autoimmune disease?’ I had never heard of scleroderma before.”

According to the Scleroderma Foundation, scleroderma affects an estimated 300,000 Americans. It’s onset is most frequent between the ages of 25 and 55, and women are four times more likely to have the disease than men. Localized scleroderma is more common in children, whereas adults are more likely to suffer from the systemic version of the disease that is more widespread in the body. Though the exact cause of the disease is unknown, it’s believed that genetic factors can make one more susceptible to the disease, and that it involves an overproduction of collagen.

Since little is known about the disease, Latifah is partnering with Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals to raise awareness as part of the More Than Scleroderma campaign. “The right information and resources are out there and you can start by visiting SclerodermaILD.com. My hope is that I can help make others’ journey with SSc-ILD a little less challenging.”

Though Latifah was devastated to lose her mother after a five-year battle with the disease, she hopes to make a difference in her memory. “I found that knowledge is power when it came to managing my mom’s health, and I want to share what I’ve learned to help others. Anything my mon could do to help someone else have an easier journey, she wanted to be a part of – so it’s important for me to carry on my mom’s mission,” she explained.

To learn more about Scleroderma, visit the Scleroderma Foundation website.