Prominent neurologist awarded grant to research Alzheimer’s as an autoimmune disease
Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia; according to the Alzheimer’s Association, Alzheimer’s disease accounts for up to 80% of dementia cases.
Although little is still known about this disease, which causes significant loss of memory and other cognitive abilities, the most well-accepted hypothesis is that Alzheimer’s is caused by the build up of a protein called beta amyloid. When too much beta amyloid is accumulated in the brain, toxic clumps of the protein, called plaques, can form. These plaques are believed to be the culprit for Alzheimer’s; as a result, recent clinical trials have aimed to find a way to target and reduce the amount of plaques in the brain.
However, a prominent neurologist and medical researcher from Toronto, Ontario, Canada has put forth a new hypothesis on the development of Alzheimer’s. Dr. Donald Weaver theorizes that beta amyloid is actually a normal part of the brain’s innate immune system, and is there to kill bacteria and serve as a messenger protein. When the body’s immune response is triggered by an infection, trauma, or exposure to noxious substances, brain cells are triggered to release beta amyloid.
The problem arises, however, when beta amyloid mistakes brain cells for bacteria, and begins to kill these cells instead. This leads to fragments being created in the brain, which go on to trigger the continued release of beta amyloid. The result is a self-perpetuating cycle of releasing beta amyloid and killing more brain cells, resulting in a chronic disease.
Dr. Weaver’s theory on Alzheimer’s as an an autoimmune disease has garnered the attention of the medical community. He has been awarded the silver Oskar Fischer Prize, a grant worth US$400,000 from the University of Texas at San Antonio, to pursue research related to his theory.
Dr. Weaver believes that by exploiting the body’s natural way of controlling the immune system, Alzheimer’s symptoms can be reduced, and the disease could even be prevented. He commented, “If we accept the fact that Alzheimer’s disease is an immune-based disease that has certain triggers, then I think that we need to go back and revisit the risk factors.” Examples of risk factors include air pollution, head trauma, and genetic susceptibility.
Ultimately, Dr. Weaver’s research represents hope for a new way of tackling Alzheimer’s disease. Even more exciting is that Dr. Weaver’s research may have applicability beyond Alzheimer’s to other neurological conditions as well, such as Parkinson’s, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and Encephalitis.
Jenny Hsieh, director of the University of Texas at San Antonio’s Brain Consortium, believes it’s important to provide researchers the opportunity to pursue ideas that are outside the box. “We just need people to be able to work on different ideas…because the bottom line is all of the current approaches to Alzheimer’s disease [are] not working.”
A new study from the University of Bonn in Germany has revealed a link between the consumption of dairy products and multiple sclerosis (MS), reports Science Daily.
The researcher who led the study, Stefanie Kürten, a professor or neuroanatomy at the University Hospital Bonn, is considered to be an expert on MS, an autoimmune disease that often has debilitating and disabling symptoms. Kürten says it was her patients themselves that prompted her theory that there could be a link between the consumption of dairy products and MS symptoms.
“We hear again and again from sufferers that they feel worse when they consume milk, cottage cheese, or yogurt,” Kürten explained. “[So] we injected mice with different proteins from cow’s milk. We wanted to find out if there was a protein that they were responding to with symptoms of disease,” she said.
Her team’s research had some interesting results: when they administered the cow’s milk protein casein to mice, together with an effect enhancer, the mice went on to develop neurological disorders. A microscopic look at the mice’s nerve fibers showed damage to the myelin sheath, which is the insulating layer that gets damaged by the body’s immune response in patients with MS.
Rittika Chunder, a postdoctoral fellow in Professor Kürten’s research team, explains: “We suspected that the reason [for the damage] was a misdirected immune response, similar to that seen in MS patients.” “The body’s defenses actually attack the casein, but in the process they also destroy proteins involved in the formation of myelin.”
So why would one’s body attack the casein, the protein found in milk, to begin with? The researchers theorize that presumably, the multiple sclerosis patients studied developed an allergy to casein at some point in their lives as a result of consuming milk. Then, the immune system mistook a protein called MAG, which is important for myelin production, with casein.
“We compared casein to different molecules that are important for myelin production,” Chunder explained. “In the process, we came across a protein called MAG. It looks markedly similar to casein in some respects – so much so that antibodies to casein were also active against MAG in the lab animals.”
So, if you have MS, should you avoid milk and other dairy products altogether? Not necessarily, say the researchers, as this only affects MS patients who are allergic to cow’s milk casein.
“We are currently developing a self-test with which affected individuals can check whether they carry corresponding antibodies,” said Kürten. “At least this subgroup should refrain from consuming milk, yogurt, or cottage cheese.”
Another multiple sclerosis study out of Harvard University has pointed to the Epstein-Barr virus being the trigger for the demyelinating autoimmune disease. And, the MS Society of Canada has published vitamin D recommendations, due to the link between vitamin D deficiency and MS, demonstrating that there isn’t necessarily one catch-all cause of MS.
Still, Kürten’s research has opened an interesting conversation for further studies related to the link between diet and autoimmune disease – and many leading physicians and scientists believe that there is, in fact, a link. Dr. Terry Wahls, a physician who has MS herself, published a book called The Wahls Protocol about how she used Paleo eating principals to put her MS symptoms into remission.
For all of our readers with multiple sclerosis: what do you think about the new research about the link between dairy and MS? Do you follow a certain diet to control your MS symptoms? Let us know in the comments below!
Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a debilitating autoimmune disease, may in fact be caused by a virus, suggests a new study published in Science by Harvard Medical School Researchers.
The researchers tested a cohort of more than 10 million young adults on active duty in the US military between 1993 and 2013. During this 20-year timeframe, 955 individuals were diagnosed with MS over the course of their period of service. The researchers found that the risk of MS increased 32-fold after infection with the Epstein-Barr virus, known as EBV for short.
MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The chronic inflammation occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers, causing communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body. According to the Mayo Clinic, the disease can eventually cause permanent damage or deterioration of the nerves. Other symptoms include vision problems, slurred speech, fatigue, dizziness, tingling or pain in parts of the body, and bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction.
Multiple Sclerosis and the Epstein-Barr Virus
Although the exact cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown, it has long been hypothesized that the demyelination in the brain and spinal course is triggered by a viral infection. This particular study found that serum levels of neurofilament light chain, a biomarker of neuroaxonal degeneration, increased only after EBV seroconversion, suggesting that EBV is a leading cause of MS. However, the risk of MS was not increased after infection with other viruses, such as the cytomegalovirus (CMV); the researchers had also compared samples to CMV positivity as a negative control group, and found that CMV positivity was actually associated with a lower risk of MS.
“The key finding is that MS is a complication of infection with EBV,” said Alberto Ascherio, a professor of epidemiology and nutrition at Harvard’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Commenting on the size and longevity of the study, Ascherio said: “There is no comparable population in the world.”
Stanford University researchers believe that molecular mimicry may be the culprit behind why those infected with Epstein-Barr have a higher risk of developing MS. Molecular mimicry occurs when immune cells targeting EBV accidentally attack myelin, due to the molecular similarities between the virus and this tissue. A 2018 study identified EBV-infected B cells in the brains of MS patients, lending support to the molecular mimicry theory.
Multiple Sclerosis: Vitamin D Deficiency and Genetic Factors
It’s unlikely that EBV is the sole reason behind the development of MS, however. The study suggests that EBV seropositivity is necessary to develop MS, but it isn’t sufficient – otherwise, 95% of the world’s population would have MS, since the virus is prevalent worldwide. According to the UK-based Multiple Sclerosis Trust, an estimated 2.5 million people worldwide have multiple sclerosis. So why do only some people develop MS and not others?
Another theory about the development of MS is vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D, also known as the sunshine vitamin, may be a protective compound against the development of MS; it has been found, for instance, that the distribution of MS around the world is uneven; generally, the prevalence of the disease increases as you travel further north or south from the equator. The parts of Asia, Africa and America that lie on the equator have extremely low levels of MS, while Canada and Scotland have particularly high rates. This suggests that vitamin D, particularly from the sun, is important in preventing MS, possibly due to its anti-inflammatory properties.
Other studies have shown that certain ethnic groups have a markedly lower prevalence of MS, despite living in places where the disease is more common. For example, the Sami or Lapps of northern Scandinavia, the Inuits of Canada and Greenland (Denmark), and the Maoris of New Zealand exhibit very low rates of MS, despite living in some of the northernmost and southernmost climates in the world.
Multiple Sclerosis and Diet
Another theory that has evolved is the relationship between Multiple Sclerosis and one’s diet. As noted above, many northernmost communities do not get sufficient vitamin D from the sun, due to their local climate. However, they make up for this by consuming a vitamin D-rich diet; for example, fish and marine mammals like seal and whale. These foods are also rich in healthy omega-3 fatty acids, which are also known to have anti-inflammatory properties and may help other autoimmune conditions beyond MS, like rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Although considered controversial to some, Dr. Terry Wahls, who has multiple sclerosis herself, developed a dietary approach to treating autoimmune conditions with paleo principals, which she calls the Wahls Protocol.
New Ways to Treat MS
Ascherio, for his part, believes that his team’s groundbreaking research on the connection between viruses like Epstein-Barr and MS could pioneer the development of new multiple sclerosis treatments. For example, immunosuppressive therapies that deplete B cells infected by EBV.
There is also renewed interest in developing vaccines and antivirals against EBV with the objective of eradicating MS. While antivirals targeting EBV don’t yet exist, Ascherio says their development is realistic: “Once you establish the causal connection, I think it’s a question of providing sufficient rational for research on antivirals, specifically for EBV, that could help people with MS [around] the world,” he concluded.