A group of Italian researchers based out of Sapienza University in Rome have discovered a link between endometriosis and several common autoimmune diseases.
According to the Endometriosis Foundation of America, endometriosis is a menstruation-related disease that primarily affects women in their reproductive years. The disease occurs when tissue similar to the endometrium (the lining of the uterus) migrates outside of the womb, where it shouldn’t be. This results in a variety of symptoms, including inflammation, severe cramping and pain, long, heavy periods, and infertility. It can also cause other symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, bowel and urinary disorders, chronic fatigue and pain during sexual activity.
The exact cause of endometriosis is poorly understood. While many theories have been suggested, this study investigated the prevalence of common autoimmune diseases among Italian women with endometriosis. The study compared 148 women with endometriosis (the case group) to 150 who did not have the condition (the control group). The women in the study ranged from 18-45 years of age, and those who had endometriosis suffered from varying degrees of the disease.
The study found that in the case group, there was a ‘significantly higher’ prevalence of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), celiac disease, and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, as compared to the control group not affected by endometriosis. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), however, was not found to be linked with endometriosis.
The main limitation of this study is the small sample size. Further studies must be done with a larger group in order to prove that autoimmune activity is responsible for the development of endometriosis. However, this study is helpful for physicians to consider the possibility of autoimmune conditions that may be co-occurring in patients with endometriosis.
To learn more about endometriosis, visit the Endometriosis Foundation of America website.