10 Facts about Crohn’s Disease

According to the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation, Crohn’s is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Read on to learn 10 interesting facts about this autoimmune condition.

1. It’s more common than you think

An estimated 3 million Americans suffer from autoimmune diseases of the digestive tract, referred to as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). These conditions include Crohn’s disease, Celiac disease and Ulcerative Colitis. Women and men are equally likely to be affected by Crohn’s disease, unlike many other autoimmune conditions which are more prevalent among females.

2. Crohn’s affects patients early in life

Unlike some autoimmune diseases, such as Sjogren’s Syndrome, which are more likely to develop during middle-age, Crohn’s tends to develop early in a patient’s life. Most commonly, the disease will occur in one’s teens or twenties, though some patients can experience symptoms even earlier. According to WebMD, while most people are diagnosed before age 30, the disease can still occur in people in their 60s and beyond.

3. The gastrointestinal symptoms can be debilitating

The most common symptoms of Crohn’s are gastrointestinal in nature. These symptoms include abdominal cramps, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia and delayed growth (especially in younger children). There are actually different types of Crohn’s disease depending on which part of the gastrointestinal tract is affected, and each subtype has its own specific symptoms.

4. Non-Gastrointestinal symptoms are also problematic

Crohn’s patients sometimes experience symptoms that aren’t gastrointestinal in nature, and which are often more problematic than their bowel issues. These symptoms include: fever, colitic arthritis (which migrates along the body and affects one’s knees, ankles, hips, wrists and elbows), pericholangitis (an inflammation of the tissues around the bile ducts), kidney stones, urinary tract complications, and fistulas (abnormal connections between body parts, such as organs and blood vessels).

5. It can greatly impact one’s quality of life

According to the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation, autoimmune conditions of the digestive tract can highly impact one’s quality of life. For example, the Foundation shared the story of Paige, who was diagnosed with Crohn’s at age 20. Paige had lost 40 lbs on her already petite frame as a result of the disease, and she even had difficulty standing up, since her muscles had become accustomed to her being doubled over in pain. Thankfully, by participating in clinical trials, Paige’s condition is now improving, and she’s regaining her quality of life.

6. The condition can impact one’s mental health too

The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation states that rates of depression are higher among patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis as compared to other diseases and the general population. Furthermore, anxiety is also common among patients who have IBD. Dr. Megan Riehl, a clinical psychologist with the University of Michigan’s Department of Gastroenterology, explains that stress and anxiety can contribute to ‘flares’ of the disease. She also says it’s imperative for patients to find ways to cope with living with a chronic illness, such as cognitive behavioral therapy.

7. A comprehensive physical exam is necessary for a Crohn’s diagnosis

A number of advanced diagnostic tools are used to determine if a patient has Crohn’s disease. These diagnostic procedures include: imaging scans and endoscopic procedures. Imaging scans involve CT scans or specialized X-rays to view your colon and ileum (a portion of the small intestine). Endoscopic procedures, such as a flexible sigmoidoscopy or a colonoscopy, involve the insertion of a tube into one’s rectum, lower colon or entire colon to examine the area in detail.

8. Crohn’s may be genetic in nature

According to John Hopkins Medicine, Crohn’s may be genetic, especially considering it’s more prevalent among people of certain ethnic groups. For example, people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent are at a greater risk of having the disease compared to the general population. In addition, a genetic cause is suspected, since studies have shown that between 1.5% and 28% of people with IBD have a first-degree relative, such as a parent, child or sibling who also has the disease.

9. Environmental triggers for Crohn’s may also be responsible

According to the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation, the lack of complete gene penetrance and the rapid rise of IBD incidence in certain geographic regions suggests that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to this condition. Several environmental triggers currently being studied include: diet, smoking, viruses and psychological stress.

10. There is hope

If you or someone you know has Crohn’s disease, it is important to get support for your condition. In addition to working closely alongside a team of medical professionals to get the right treatment, patients are encouraged to find a local support group where they can connect with others who are living with the condition. Moreover, patients should consider taking advantage of the many patient resources out there, such as the Crohn’s and Colitis online community, the IBDVisible blog and the patient stories center. Remember, you’re not alone in the fight against Crohn’s!

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Is This Illness Related to COVID-19 Autoimmune?

Healthcare professionals are grappling with the effects of pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MICS), a complication of COVID-19 in children

Across the world, disturbing reports are coming through detailing a new complication thought to be related to COVID-19 that is affecting children with the virus. The illness, called pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome, or MICS for short, causes the immune system to overreact, leading to dangerously high levels of inflammation throughout the body. It impacts the body’s major organs, including the heart, liver, and kidneys, among other parts of the body.

Juliet Daly, a 12-year old girl from Louisiana, was diagnosed with both COVID-19 and MICS after going through cardiac arrest. Thankfully, she was airlifted to a children’s hospital, where she was put on a ventilator until she could breath on her own and her heart and other organs had recovered.

Juliet Daly was diagnosed with COVID-19 and pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome after being admitted to the hospital. Image courtesy of CNN.

Pediatric multisystem inflammatory sundrome has been compared to Kawasaki disease, an inflammatory condition primarily found in children under age five that impacts the heart’s coronary arteries. Kawsaki disease can lead to complications like artery enlargement, aneurysms, issues with the lymph nodes, skin, and the lining of the nose, throat and mouth. Some experts hypothesize that the coronavirus could be a trigger for Kawasaki disease. A recent study done in Bergamo, Italy found that the incidence of a ‘severe, Kawasaki-like disease’ increased 30-fold after the virus broke out in the region, further supporting this theory.

Pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome also bears the hallmarks of a cytokine storm, a phenomenon in which the body’s immune system overreacts to the virus and mounts a harmful inflammatory response in the body.

This raises the question, is MICS autoimmune in nature? While little is known about the condition, Dr. Randall Williams, Director of the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services, said during a recent press conference that the condition is an “autoimmune reaction“, and that “it’s basically where your body reacts to an antigen and starts attacking itself.”

The relationship between viruses and autoimmune disease has been studied in the past. For example, studies have found a link between the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the pathogenesis of a number of autoimmune diseases including lupus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, and celiac disease.

Though there isn’t a cure for MICS, it’s treated by giving patients steroid and intravenous medications commonly issued to patients with an autoimmune disease, in an effort to decrease damaging inflammation.

While the coronavirus has proven to be less common and less deadly in children than adults, two young children and a teen with COVID-19 who showed Kawasaki disease symptoms have died in the state of New York. As a result, parents are advised to take precautions and contact their pediatrician or family medicine provider if your child has a fever to determine the best next steps.

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Autoimmune Disease on the Rise in the United States

An April 2020 study published in Arthritis and Rheumatology suggests that autoimmune disease is on the rise in the United States.

In the study, researchers found that the prevalence of the most common biomarkers of autoimmune disease, called antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), is significantly increasing in the U.S. overall as well as among certain populations. These affected populations include:

  • Men
  • Non-Hispanic whites
  • Adolescents
  • Adults 50 year and older

The researchers examined over 14,000 patients ages 12 and up over the course of three time periods spanning 30 years. In this time frame, they discovered that the overall frequency of ANAs in their test subjects went from 11% affected individuals to almost 16% affected. The worst affected population was the adolescent group, who experienced a nearly three-fold increase in ANA rates over the course of the study period.

While the exact cause of autoimmune disease remains unknown, many scientists believe that a combination of genetic and environmental factors is responsible. However, the researchers in the study state that because people have not changed much genetically over the past 30 years, it is more likely that lifestyle or environmental factors are responsible for the ANA increases.

Christine Parks, PhD, is one of the researchers involved in the study who focuses on the environmental causes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune diseases. “These new findings…will help us design studies to better understand why some people develop autoimmune diseases,” she said. She also added that there are over 100 chronic, debilitating autoimmune conditions that could stand to benefit from further research.

Donna Jackson Nakazawa, a Maryland-based science journalist and author of the book The Autoimmune Epidemic, believes that our ever-increasing exposure to chemicals, heavy metals, and viruses, coupled with stress, dietary and other lifestyle factors, is primarily to blame for the increase in autoimmune disease. She also points out that there may be a connection between autoimmune disease and allergies, which are also skyrocketing.

Nakazawa herself suffers from Guillain-Barre Syndrome, a paralyzing autoimmune disease similar to multiple sclerosis (MS). In her latest book, The Last Best Cure, she states that experts predict that the number of Americans who suffer from chronic conditions will rise an astonishing 37% by 2030.

While this may not sound like positive news, one good thing is that with an increase in autoimmune disease, more scientists, medical professionals and pharmaceutical companies will be encouraged to undertake research to find treatments and, ultimately, a cure for autoimmunity. I personally am hopeful that we will see enormous strides in biotechnology in my lifetime.

Are you surprised by the increase in autoimmune disease in the U.S.? Let us know in the comments below!